Glycine soya - The soybean ( U.S. ) or soya bean ( UK )
Saturday 25 December 2010, by
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Definition for Glycine soya
The soybean ( U.S. ) or soya bean ( UK ) ( Glycine max ) is a species of legume native to East Asia .
It is an annual plant that may vary in growth, habit, and height.
It may grow prostrate, not growing higher than 20 cm (7.8 inches), or even up to 2 meters (6.5 feet) in height.
The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray pubescence .
The leaves are trifoliolate, having 3 leaflets per leaf,
and the leaflets are 6–15 cm (2–6 inches) long and 2–7 cm (1–3 inches) broad.
The leaves fall before the seeds are mature.
The small, inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple.
The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of 3–5, with each pod 3–8 cm (1–3 inches) long and usually containing 2–4 (rarely more) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.
Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty.
It is a cultural variety (a cultigen ) with a very large number of cultivars . However, it is known that the progenitor of the modern soybean was a vine-like plant that grew prone on the ground. Soy Beans contain 4% gasoline.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera(species), Glycine and Soja. The subgenus Soja(Moench) includes the cultivated Soybean, G. max (L.)Merrill, and the wild soybean, G. soja Sieb.& Zucc.
Soybean, green rawNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy 30 kcal 130 kJCarbohydrates 5.94 g- Sugars 4.13 g- Dietary fiber 1.8 gFat 0.18 g- saturated 0.046 g- monounsaturated 0.022 g- polyunsaturated 0.058 gProtein 3.04 gWater 90.4 gVitamin A equiv. 1 μg 0%Vitamin B6 0.088 mg 7%Vitamin B12 0 μg 0%Vitamin C 13.2 mg 22%Vitamin K 33 μg 31%Calcium 13 mg 1%Iron 0.91 mg 7%Magnesium 21 mg 6%Phosphorus 54 mg 8%Potassium 149 mg 3%Sodium 6 mg 0%Zinc 0.41 mg 4%
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Soybeans are considered by many agencies, including the US Food and Drug Administration, to be a source of complete protein. A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body’s inability to synthesize them. For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for many vegetarians and vegans or for people who cannot afford meat.
According to the FDA, "Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a "complete" protein profile. Soybeans contain all the amino acids essential to human nutrition, which must be supplied in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the human body. Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods—which also have complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat—without requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet."
However, as with any dietary health claim, there are opposing viewpoints on the health benefits of soybeans.
The gold standard for measuring protein quality, since 1990, is the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and by this criterion soy protein is near to being the nutritional equivalent of meat and eggs for human growth and health. Soybean protein isolate has a Biological Value of 74, whole soybeans 96, soybean milk 91, and eggs 97.
Soy protein is similar to that of other legume seeds, but has the highest yield per square meter of growing area, and is the least expensive source of dietary protein.
Consumption of soy may also reduce the risk of colon cancer, possibly due to the presence of sphingolipids.
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